Chaldean Estate is an 1,155 hectare arable farm in Much Hadham, Hertfordshire. As well as growing sugar beet, wheat, rapeseed and field beans, the Estate manages some 120 hectares of woodland, much of which benefits from public access and some of which has been categorised as ‘ancient’. Two new areas of woodland comprising some 33 hectares were planted in Autumn 2012 and have been designated Diamond Woods, as part of the Queen’s Diamond Jubilee celebration.
The Farm is managed within a consortium called Gilston Crop Management LLP which comprises the Chaldean Estate and two local farms.
We are fully committed to operating in harmony with nature and are full participants in English Nature’s ‘Countryside Stewardship Scheme’ a scheme aimed at protecting and enhancing wildlife whilst producing crops for food.
Chaldean Estate, via Gilston Crop Management LLP ensures the highest standard of food production alongside taking full consideration of its responsibilities towards the environment.
Energy Usage: As users of energy, consideration is given at all times to minimising usage through procurement of fuel efficient machinery, minimisation of field passes and the use of alternative energy production.
Waste Management: Consideration is always given to reducing and disposal of waste in an environmentally responsible manner.
Risk Management: Managing Environmental risk is achieved through using best practice and training.
Conservation: Gilston Crop Management recognises its responsibilities for enhancing biodiversity and wildlife habitats and considers, at all times, the integration of environmental initiatives into its farming activities. Legislative and recommended guidelines are heeded where possible.
In Spring 2010 the Estate installed a biomass boiler which provides heat and hot water to the principal farm house, Estate Office and several other buildings on the Estate. It is powered by woodchip sourced from the Estate’s woodlands and means that oil-fired boilers that had previously been needed are no longer required.
The Estate fields, hedgerows and woodlands provide a refuge as well as food for a range of wildlife including deer, brown hare, badgers and numerous bird species.
An Estate neighbour with a special interest in Glow Worms wrote to the Estate in July 2019 saying: ‘ I wanted to express a note of thanks to you for the delayed cutting of the set-aside land north-east of Barwick ford this year. This meant that the glow worms had a full glowing season that extended to the latter half of July and produced a record count (for us) of 35 glowing females on one evening.’
An RSPB survey was carried out during 2011 at Barwick and Arches Hall Farms. This found that several birds commonly seen on the Estate are those categorised Red or Amber in terms of conservation importance by the RSPB.
The Red list criteria includes:
Amber is the next most critical group. Birds in the amber list will be subject to at least one of the relevant factors listed below:
Recent sightings include a pair of Black caps feeding on insects that were on weeds growing up through coppice brush, Goldfinch feeding on groundsel seeds and willow warblers. There have been reports from walkers in Bowles wood of a pair of Spotted fly catchers along with numerous Warblers, Chaffinches and Goldfinches feeding on Thistles. You may also see Turtle Doves, Red kites, Grey Partridge and Mistle thrushes.
The Estate manages over 120 hectares of woodland, much of which benefits from public access and some of which has been categorised as ‘ancient’. Within over 25 separate woodlands a wide range of species thrives including Oak, Ash, Elm, Hornbeam, Sycamore and Western Red Cedars, as well as wildlife friendly scrub.
The woods are managed in accordance with Forestry Commission agreed management plans that enable rotational coppicing and felling of small blocks for the purpose of providing wood for the Estate’s bio mass boilers and for its fire log business – C-logs (to purchase logs please go to www.C-logs.com).
In Sawtrees Wood, to the south west of the Estate, there are some 300+ year old oak trees (veteran trees) and potentially some hornbeam pollards of a similar age. In Cooks Wood and Round Wood (also known as Factory Wood) to the north of Sawtrees Wood there are more examples of veteran oak trees.
Two new areas of woodland comprising some 33 hectares were planted in 2012 on sites at Latchford and Cold Christmas. These were awarded Diamond Jubilee Wood status by the Woodland Trust as part of the UK’s celebration of the Queen’s Diamond Jubilee.
The Estate uncovered some interesting history about the woodlands originally called Cook’s Wood, in Barwick. One of our neighbours, Maurice Charge, explained that an explosives factory was built within the woodlands in 1889 by the Smokeless Powder Company and by about 1905 the wood became known as Factory Wood. The name has stuck ever since.
A late 19th Century invention, smokeless powder allowed the development of modern semi- and fully automatic firearms. Burnt black powder leaves a thick, heavy fouling which causes rusting of the barrel. Because the fouling left by smokeless powder exhibits none of these properties it made an auto-loading firearm with many moving parts feasible (which would otherwise jam or seize under heavy black powder fouling).
Why a smokeless powder manufacturer decided to build a factory on the banks of the River Rib at Barwick is not known, but by 1898 the factory had been taken over by the Schultz Gunpowder Co, a German firm. Many of the firm’s German employees were housed on the site until 1914 when, with the start of the First World War, all German nationals were interned and the firm transferred to the Government.
The photograph shows the German factory manager, smartly dressed in what looks like a Homburg hat and shawl-collared coat, along with other employees alongside on of the company’s vehicles. In the late 19th century, a man of African origin must have been an arresting sight in a small village in the Hertfordshire countryside.
Between the Wars the works were operated by the Sabulite Snap co, making snaps for celebration crackers. The Factory was finally closed in about 1946 and was subsequently used in part as a piggery and also by a coachbuilder.
Maurice told us that Pasfield Cottages in High Cross were built with the timbers and roof tiles of the factory which was pulled down by his father John Charge, and Bill Pasfield, in the late 1940’s.
The Chaldean Estate is fortunate to have many miles of mature, native hedgerows creating wildlife corridors across the farmed land, bordering our woodland, tracks and the network of country lanes.
The majority of our hedgerows are over a hundred years of age and some are ancient. They comprise oak, ash, field maple, elm, lime, willow and crab apple, along with a diverse range of woody shrubs such as hazel, blackthorn, hawthorn and spindleberry. Old pollards and standard trees of oak, hornbeam and ash can be found as well, and these, along with the hedges generally, support a very wide range of flora and fauna. A few hedges were planted with non-native poplars to create windbreaks but these often have a component of native species too.
After many years of neglect by the previous land owners, the Estate has started an ambitious programme of hedgerow restoration and restocking to diversify their age structure and encourage new growth. Care has been taken to safeguard the veteran hedgerow trees and to select future veterans.
The time for drilling spring crops – our spring wheat and spring oilseed rape – and applying fertiliser to help promote healthy growth. Minimal herbicide, funcidide and insecticide sprays are applied to protect the crops and bird scaring ‘ guns’ are put in place to try to keep pigeon damage as low as possible.
The season sees the combine harvesters running methodoically up and down the row of crop. These are high-tech machines that carry computer programmes of our field boundaries and crop layouts to ensure harvesting is carried out as efficiently as possible – important given the high cost of fuel. The produce – which will typically have been sold several months before – is taken to the various storage sheds for drying and conditioning.
The land is cultivated during this season, and drilling of the Estate’s main crops – cereals and oilseeds. Fertilisers are applied to boost growth. Grain and seed in our stores gradually leaves the farm, being collected by purchasers and contractors.
Again the land is cultivated in readiness for spring planting. The Estate’s hedges are cut and the Estate’s hands are busy clearing ditches, checking field drainage and maintaining all farm equipment.
In April 2019, Chaldean planted 18,500 vines for grapes on approximately 10 acres of land at Barley Hills, to the north of the Estate. This has broadened the range of crops grown which includes wheat, oilseed rape and sugar beet.
In researching the project, we discovered that, apart from those planted on the wrong sites and with the wrong varieties, many vineyards failed because they found it difficult to produce enough yield to make the enterprise sustainable and/or failed to sell the wines they produced at anything like the price required to cover costs. Importantly, the wines produced need to be of sufficient quality and promoted expertly if one is to succeed.
The rise of UK sparkling wine as a really high-quality product has greatly helped the situation as the price sector that these are currently selling in is much higher and shows a better margin. So this is the sector that the Estate has focused on.
Scale of the enterprise is also an issue as a profitable vineyard needs to benefit from economies of scale.
We have been guided by the owners of Dedham Vale Vineyard in Essex. They showed how lack of scale could be overcome, and gave us the confidence to move forward with the project. Our business plan involves growing grapes for juice to be sold to established vineyards located in the more traditional vine growing areas to the south of the country.
Half the vines are Pinot Noir variety and half Chardonnay, the best varieties for English Sparkling Wine.
Needing protection from, principally, deer and rabbits, many metres of fencing has been required. We cannot protect the vines from adverse weather – frost being the biggest danger – but with luck the Estate’s first saleable crop will be ready for harvest in the autumn of 2022.
The Estate was delighted to be approached by Christopher Nicola who was looking for some land on which to grow cherry trees on a commercial scale. Christopher’s parents were from Pedhoulas, a mountain village in Cyprus which has a perfect climate for cherries, and cherry growing had been in his family for generations.
‘My background’s in banking and the oil industry, but I’ve always wanted to grow plants and trees,’ he explained. ‘With new rootstock available I could see how I could grow cherries on a commercial scale, and things went from there.’
Chaldean helped identify a two acre site, behind Lordship Farm Cottages in Much Hadham, which he now rents on an Agricultural Tenancy, and which he has already prepared with deer-proof fencing, awaiting the arrival of 1,000 trees.
‘I’ll be growing eight different varieties,’ Christopher enthused. ‘This will give me the longest season over which to pick the fruit – all dessert varieties – and will also enable good cross fertilisation.’
The Chaldean Estate is fortunate to have the River Rib running through its western boundary, through Latchford and Barwick (taking in Barwick Ford, pictured).
A walk along the banks will rarely reveal any fish as they tend to hide in the shadows amongst the vegetation. However, a trip out with the team from the Environment Agency responsible for the health of the county’s rivers is highly rewarding. The team sweeps through the river with a wand-like gadget that emits an electric current which attracts the fish. Suddenly, as if by magic, fish of all sizes swim lazily from their cover towards the device; the team lift them out, weigh and measure them, and take a few scale samples before returning them, unharmed, to the river. Their analysis from this exercise grades the River’s health. The fact that there are so many fish is excellent news.
Sadly, as with many British rivers, there are high numbers of non-native ‘Signal’ crayfish, which are rapidly out-numbering the smaller native crayfish. Although excellent to eat, Environment Agency permission is required to catch Signals (as well as a special trap and the land owner’s permission) which won’t be forthcoming if native species are also present.
There is an enormous amount of wildlife to watch in the vicinity of the river. There have been regular sightings of mallard, moorhens and coots; if you are lucky you will see kingfishers too.
Chaldean Estate land benefits from a large network of publicly accessible footpaths, bridleways and BOATS (otherwise known as Byways Open to All Traffic!). The map here shows them all and we warmly encourage everyone to enjoy using them. Many offer beautiful vistas which change with the seasons. There is always something of interest to see whether it be ancient woodland, acres of healthy crops, soaring red kites or more elusive herds of fallow deer.
The extent of public access is:
Restricted Bridleways: 0.64Km